Glossary

24K Gold

24K Gold as a Cosmetic Ingredient

Throughout history, gold mineral has been recognized for its luxurious and beautifying properties. It has been used for centuries by Oriental cultures for its anti-aging and healing benefits. Gold's anti-inflammatory properties decrease skin inflammation which, in turn, slows down melanin secretion and reduces aging spots. Gold slows down collagen depletion and the breakdown of elastin. With the introduction of gold to the skin, a higher amount of blood is brought to the area speeding up cellular processes and activating regeneration. Gold, being an excellent electrical conductor, enhances the body’s transmission of bioelectrical current between cells. These bioelectrical signals accelerate cell repair and promote healthier cell production. Gold stimulates cellular growth of the basal layer to regenerate healthy, firm skin cells and provide a tightening effect. The appearance of fine lines and wrinkles is diminished with each gold treatment. It can be used as a preventative treatment to maintain moisturized, healthy, radiant skin.

Acetyl Hexapeptide 3

Acetyl Hexapeptide 3 is a non-toxic amino-peptide developed specifically to reduce wrinkles and the signs of premature aging. Acetyl Hexapeptide 3 is a cost-effective alternative to injections and surgical procedures. Acetyl Hexapeptide 3 temporarily limits the overproduction and release of neurotransmitters that initiate and control the intensity of facial muscle contractions. This reduction in intensity reduces and prevents the formation of dynamic wrinkles that make your skin look aged. This powerful ingredient reduces muscle contractions in a non-paralytic fashion and without toxic side effects. It is naturally derived and non-irritating to the skin.

Algae Extract

Algae extract that is derived from the sea plants is found to be very rich in minerals that nurtures, softens, smoothens the skin by helping in retaining moisture.
The extract comprises of the weed present in sea and pond scum. It is proven fact that it is very beneficial for the skin. It has firming and anti-irritant properties, highly suitable for aging skin as well as skin infections. It acts by diminishing the activity of collagens and other proteolytic enzymes, which aids the skin in retaining its pliability and younger looking effect. Algae Extract also consists of polysaccharide sugars It plays the key role in promoting the retention of moisture in the skin There are various kinds of polysaccharides that are present in Algae extract such as alginates, fucoidanes, polyphenols, fucostero etc. Alginates are compounds responsible for moisture retention and elasticity of the skin. Fucoidanes are sulfated polysaccharides that encourage circulation. Polyphenols have anti septic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Fucosterol functions as a tremendous emollient, moisturizer, blood stimulant and diuretic.
The excellence exhibited by the algae extract is due to its water-binding properties. It aids other moisturizing factors such as smoothens the horny layer and makes it lithe. The extract also contains some essential trace elements and vital nutrients good for skin such as Copper, Silicon Iron, Zinc, and Magnesium etc that plays a major role in the metabolic processes of the skin. It also contains amino acids, which is an important part of human blood plasma and helps its absorption in the skin thoroughly as compared to other ingredients.
Algae extracted from seaweed are a natural moisturizer. These are very effective in preventing wrinkles. This extract can be added to salt baths to aggravate detoxifying effect.

Aloe Extract

Aloe Vera has the reputation of being a wonder plant with wide ranging therapeutic properties. Here are some of the great health benefits it confers. Soothes skin: Aloe Vera has healing, antibacterial and moisturizing properties that soothe the skin. This is why it is frequently used in cosmetics, including sunscreens, creams, lotions and facial washes. Aloe Vera has antibacterial, antifungal and analgesic properties. The sap, when applied directly, helps close wounds faster. Not just that, it is believed to reduce the ungainly scars that often remain after wounds have healed. Aids digestion: Pure Aloe Vera, when ingested orally, soothes the digestive tract. It is also said to improve absorption of food by the small intestines. The enzymes present in aloe extract also aid digestion. Preliminary studies suggest that intake of Aloe Vera gel may reduce inflammation and other symptoms in patients with ulcerative colitis. Arrests cancer: While research has not yet conclusively established this, Aloe Vera is believed to have anti-carcinogenic properties that may help to inhibit the growth of cancer cells. Some studies suggest that components of aloe can inhibit tumor growth.

Bladder Wrack Seaweed Extract

The proper name for Bladderwrack is Fucus Vesiculosus. It is seaweed that is harvested from many different seas and oceans. A nourishing tonic. Obesity with tiredness and dry skin. Cellulite, chronic dry skin and stubborn constipation. Regular use delays the progress of arthritis and hardening of the arteries. Bladder Wrack extract also demonstrated anti-collagenase and antioxidant properties. Bladder Wrack extract containing fucoidan was found to promote fibroblast-populated collagen gel contraction by increasing the integrin alpha2beta1 expression on fibroblast surface.

Cucumber Extract

Cucumber extract has many benefits for the skin. The juice from cucumber has both strong moisturizing abilities as well as mild astringent effects. Cucumber extract is soothing and helps relieve the puffiness of the skin. It also helps remove dead skin cells and tightens skin. Cucumber is a great ingredient to help revitalize the skin.

FGF 1

Human Recombinant Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor, also names aFGF or FGF 1 in the FGFs family. Fibroblast growth factors, or FGFs, are a family of growth factors involved in angiogenesis, wound healing, and embryonic development. The FGFs are heparin-binding proteins and interactions with cell-surface associated heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been shown to be essential for FGF signal transduction. FGFs are key players in the processes of proliferation and differentiation of wide variety of cells and tissues.

FGFs are multifunctional proteins with a wide variety of effects; they are most commonly mitogens but also have regulatory, morphological, and endocrine effects.

This is our new and most advance product with high technology from Ohio university. Professor Dr. Chiu is the first global pioneer to clone human FGF 1 gene. Research focuses on the gene-therapy for the medical use, including brain tumor and neural damages. Cooperating with the professor Dr. Chiu, our lab created a brand new series using 99% pure FGF 1 peptide. This key ingredient plays a very important role in tissue repair and wound healing. Based on our research, our FGF 1 peptide can transfer different massages to FGFR 2 (rejuvenates fibroblast cells to produce new collagen, hyaluronic acid and elastin), KGFR (rejuvenates the epidermal cells) and FGF 7 (rejuvenates hair follicle to produce new hair).

FGF-1 rejuvenates both: the epidermal cells and the underlying fibroblast cells, which produce collagen, elastin, and hyaluronic acid. It also plays an important role in the wound healing.

These ingredients are now integrated into our cosmetic products. The testing result shows that with regular usage of products which contains the FGF 1, the skin cells grow 10-20 times faster than if using any other skin care products alone.

Ginkgo Biloba Extract

Ginkgo Biloba has been used in China and Japan for centuries for its healing properties. In DIY skin care the extract is often used in: anti-inflammatory recipes, as an anti-allergenic, to promote collagen production, and for sun damage protection and repair.

The G. biloba extract EGb 761, prepared from the tree's leaves, is a natural mixture containing flavone glycosides (33%), mostly quercetin and kaempferol derivatives, and terpenes (6%), which has exhibited the capacity to reduce the number of ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced sunburn cells in mice.

In addition, a decade ago Ginkgo extracts, including the flavonoid components quercetin, kaempferol, sciadopitysin, ginkgetin, and isoginkgetin, were shown to enhance the proliferation of normal human skin fibroblasts in vitro; additional assays of fibroblasts incubated with G. biloba extracts and ascorbic acid and controls incubated only with ascorbic acid showed increased collagen and extracellular fibronectin synthesis in the treatment group.

Grape Seed Oil

Grape seed oil has mildly astringent qualities, which help to tighten and tone the skin, making it a good cosmetic ingredient for anti-aging products. It is a light and finely textured oil and is non-comedogenic. it is also very useful for moisturizing and adding emollient properties to any product intended for use on an acne prone skin.

The oil contains palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, as well as alpha linolenic, icosanoic, icosenoic and docosanoic fatty acids. Linoleic acid is very important for the health of the skin as well as cell membranes.

Grape seed contains proanthocyanidins, which are very potent antioxidants; helpful for diminishing the sun's damaging effects and lessening free radical damage. Proanthocyanidins are also helpful in wound healing.

The antioxidant effect of this oil is most useful when fighting the ravages of aging, as the oxidative stress caused by free radicals, which are neutralized by antioxidants, is one of the major factors that cause aging.

Apart from its great skin moisturizing properties, it also has good restructuring virtues, making it a popular ingredient in cosmetic manufacture.

H.E.O.

H.E.O (Oligopeptide from Hisbiscus Esculentus Seeds) was recently found to inhibit muscle contraction in vitro. This has been demonstrated by an innovative test performed with cultured cells mimicking the hyperactivity of facial muscles. This confirmation of a muscle-relaxing mechanism was complemented by an evaluation of the anti-free radical capacity of H.E.O in a battery of in vitro and in tubo tests, covering primary free radicals and secondary reactive oxygen species (ROS). The anti-wrinkle activity of topically-applied H.E.O was confirmed in a clinical study. As its activity is not limited to relieving the mechanical formation of wrinkles, H.E.O offers more cosmetic anti-aging benefits than botulic toxin injections.

Horse Chestnut Extract

Apart from improving the health of veins and capillaries, improves circulation in the skin, and since it strengthens the capillaries – it helps to prevent “capillary fragility” which leads to "leaking" from the capillaries into the tissue. It acts as an antioxidant to inhibit the enzymes collagenase and elastase, which results in healthier collagen and supportive skin structures, leading to a healthier, younger looking skin, while the excellent anti-inflammatory action further promotes a clear healthy skin – making it a clear favorite for use in anti-aging skin care products.

Hyaluronic Acid

Hyaluronic Acid is a compound present in every tissue of the body, with the highest concentrations occurring in connective tissues such as skirt and cartilage. Hyaluronic Acid is an important constituent of joint fluid where it serves as a lubricant and plays a role in resisting compressive forces.

Hyaluronic Acid is also a major component of skin, where it is involved in tissue repair. When skin is excessively exposed to UVB rays, it becomes inflamed (sunburn) and the cells in the dermis stop producing as much hyaluronic acid, and increase the rate of its degradation. Hyaluronic Acid degradation products also accumulate in the skin after UV exposure.

Hyaluronic acid (HA), one of the skin’s most important moisture-retaining components, is found in many premium cosmetics. Unlike other HA cosmetics, this serum contains low molecular weight HA, which is tiny and easily absorbed. Small molecular weight HA can penetrate into dermis layer, fully combine with water, promote skin blood microcirculation and nutrient absorption and maintain normal metabolism, and as a result it plays a role of wrinkle removing, look improving and health protecting. HA is one of the most important building blocks for firm skin. It retains moisture in its sponge-like matrix for smooth, supple and elastic skin. HA levels decline as we age, and this may increase the appearance of dryness, wrinkles and sagging. But HA serum can help skin retain moisture for a dewy complexion.

Jojoba Oil

Jojoba Oil (pronounced "ho-HO-bah") is the liquid wax produced in the seed of the jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) plant. One of the most intriguing things about this oil is that it operates almost the same way human sebum (oil) does. Jojoba oil has been shown to work well with acne prone skin. When applied to the skin, Jojoba oil balances sebum levels and also possesses anti-bacterial properties that prevent breakouts. Its ability to prevent moisture loss makes Jojoba oil ideal for use on dry skin, eczema and other problematic skin conditions. You can find Jojoba oil in wrinkle reduction treatments, moisturizers, acne control products and a number of other skin care items. For a homemade treat, you can purchase a bottle of pure Jojoba oil to make your own moisturizing cream or add a few drops to your favorite lotion. Jojoba oil is widely used in natural skin care products as well.

L-ascorbic Acid

L-Ascorbic acid is a sugar acid with antioxidant properties. Its appearance is white to light-yellow crystals or powder, and it is water-soluble. One form of ascorbic acid is commonly known as vitamin C. L-ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) is not only active brightening agent but also very powerful antioxidant. It protects us from free radical damage. Humans, guinea pigs, and some other primates are not able to make ascorbic acid in their livers because of a genetic mutation. Ascorbic acid is found in plants, animals, and single-cell organisms. All living animals either make it, eat it, or die from scurvy due to lack of it. What makes Vitamin C one of the most essential components in food and skin care products.

Liposome

A Liposome is a tiny bubble (vesicle), made out of the same material as a cell membrane. Liposome can be filled with substances (vitamins, drugs), and used to deliver it to the cells. We are using the Liposomal Encapsulation Technology (or LET). This is the newest delivery method that is used by medical researchers to transfer drugs that act as healing promoters to the definite body organs. This form of delivery system offers targeted delivery of vital compounds to the body.

Marine Collagen

Marine collagen is derived from cod, a deep sea fish. It is also known as Deep Sea Collagen. The collagen is taken from the scales and fins. It has less environmental contaminants than the collagen taken from cattle or pigs. Marine collagen is smaller in molecular weight and thus is believed to have increased absorption into the skin. The use of collagen increases as we age and picks up speed after 40. As we age, it can benefit the skin to help boost collagen presence. Marine collagen is becoming increasingly popular for skin treatment and many people believe that it is better than land-based sources of collagen.

Matrixyl

Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4 (Matrixyl) is at least as effective against wrinkles as retinol but does not cause skin irritation, which is a common side-effect of retinoids. Its molecular structure enables Palmitoyl Pentapeptide to penetrate more deeply into skin tissue than other anti-aging products. Because Palmitoyl Pentapeptide is a collagen fragment affecting fibroblast activity, it stimulates production both of collagen I, III and IV proteins, and of the polysaccharide Hyaluronic Acid. Hyaluronic Acid plays a major role in skin hydration. Researchers found that when added to the culture of fibroblasts (the key skin cells), Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4 stimulated the synthesis of the key constituents of the skin matrix: collagen, elastin and glucosamnoglycans. Palmitoyl Oligopeptides (also known as Palmitoyl Pentapeptide, Dermaxyl, and Matrixyl) is a new amino-peptide (five amino acids linked together and attached to a fatty acid). Researchers have found that Palmitolyl Oligopeptides, when added to a culture of fibroblasts (key skin cells), stimulates collagen, elastin and glucosaminoglycans production. These are the key components of healthy-looking skin.

It is clinically proven to reduce wrinkle depth by increasing Hyaluronic Acid and collagen production. Like Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-3, Palmitoyl Oligopeptide (PO) is a synthetic protein that is a fragment of collagen combined with Palmitic Acid to make it more lipophillic, to improve its stability and to enhance its affinity towards human skin. As with Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-3, one could look at PO as a man-made precursor to collagen. PO was developed through research to identify a substance that would behave similarly to retinoic acid but without its drawbacks, especially in regards to synthesizing collagen.

The reported results are as follows: In vitro: Increases collagen production by the fibroblasts by as much as 350%. PO increases Hyaluronic Acid production by the fibroblasts by as much as 146%. In vivo: The following statistics were gathered using image analysis of volunteers:

Surface roughness -- Reduced 17% Mean depth of wrinkles -- Reduced 23% Depth of main wrinkle -- Reduced 39% Skin thickness -- Increased 4%

The increase in skin thickness was considered especially notable and contrasts with the 6% reduction of the skin thickness that occurs after 10 years of aging. The study concludes to state that PO is a potent active cosmetic ingredient without the adverse effects (including irritation, dehydration or long-term toxicity and instability) characteristic of retinoids.

Oligopeptide

An oligopeptide (oligo-, "few") consists of between 2 and 20 amino acids. (includes dipeptides, tripeptides, tetrapeptides, pentapeptides, etc.)

Orange Essential Oil

Orange oil is an essential oil produced by glands inside the rind of an orange fruit. Orange Essential Oil is high in vitamins vitamin c & A (carotene), minerals and enzymes. These qualities make it highly effective in skin care. Orange Essential oil cleanses the skin and tightens the pores, helps to treat acne. The enzymes in Orange Essential Oil help to exfoliate the skin removing dead cells, leaving your skin glowing and radiant. Orange Essential Oil is a supreme anti-aging skin cream ingredient. Pure Orange Essential Oil has many other therapeutic properties including antiseptic, antibiotic, tonic, depurative, calmative, sedative, stomachic, disinfectant, diuretic, and anticoagulant.

Peptides

Peptides ("small digestibles") are short polymers formed from the linking, in a defined order, of ?-amino acids. The link between one amino acid residue and the next is called an amide bond or a peptide bond. Proteins are polypeptide molecules (or consist of multiple polypeptide subunits). The distinction is that peptides are short and polypeptides/proteins are long.

Peptides are the building blocks, or bonds, between amino acids. Peptides are “mini proteins” and active molecules. When it is broken down, Peptides are the short segments of 3-5 amino acids form. The made up long chains of amino acids strung together, like chains of linked building blocks, is protein. Research has shown that peptides in general aid in skin repair and renewal.

Rose Essential Oil

Rose oil, meaning either rose otto (attar of rose, attar of roses) or rose absolute, is the essential oil extracted from the petals of various types of rose.

Rose Oil has no equal in skin care for moisturising, firming, smoothing and repairing the skin. In so doing, it produces no irritation, being cooling, calming and soothing. Rose also has a positive effect on broken superficial capillaries and is thus ideal for mature, dry or sensitive skin. Rose EO contains cell-rejuvenating properties. The essential oil of rose contains farnesol, a compound that binds to the skin and is antibacterial. The positive action of Rose Oil in helping to regenerate damaged skin tissues is due to its content of Trans-Retinoic Acids in a natural state as part of a complex system of unsaturated essential fatty acids. The most effective way to benefit from Rose Oil is by using it as a skin re-hydrator. As we age, oil glands diminish in size. People produce 10 times more oil at age 25 than at age 50. This condition is aggravated by climactic and environmental conditions such as dryness and air toxicity. Due to a lack of oil and depleted moisture, the skin starts to deteriorate. Rose Oil, with its high absorbing level, penetrates the skin almost instantly to restore this needed moisture balance. Most researchers agree that the best way to use Rose Oil is as a preventative therapy to retard the appearance of skin-aging signs. They recommend starting this treatment at age 20, especially for those who burn easily or are exposed to sunlight for long periods of time. One application a day will suffice. It is important to know that histological changes (the ones that cannot be observable) precede clinical manifestation (the ones that can be observed) by at least a decade - this is why prevention is of paramount importance. Rose Oil is very effective in halting and even reversing the effects produced by the sun radiation on the skin. Significant changes should be noticed after the third week of continuous application. In extreme cases of photo-aging, a more generous application should be used at night and during the day. It may take four months or more for the total disappearance of superficial wrinkles and significant dissipation of hyper-pigmented spots. Rose Oil stimulates metabolic changes in the skin by accelerating normal cellular growth in the epidermis (skin) without inducing any side effects. Rose Oil is a source of topical retinoic acid (vitamin A) in a natural bio-available form.

Silk Protein

Accumulate from silk tissue of silk worms, Silk Protein contains 18 kinds of amino acids. Silk protein is also known as silk peptide. It composes crystal layers of protein and amino acids in its silk peptide that effectively heals the chapped skin while reduces skin wrinkles and anti-aging. Aids in moisture retention due to its strong hygroscopic properties (silk is credited with the ability to retain 10,000 times its weight in water), resulting in optimum conditioning and increased strength. Silk Protein provides superior conditioning properties, making it ideal for natural-type skin care such as gels, serums, and emulsion systems. Links skin fibers to improve elasticity, resiliency, and restore the moisture balance. It also can effectively control growth of melanin in the skin. So it has fantastically good results for skin beautification. Silky Rose Essence is dissolvable Silk Protein, it can be absorbed directly by the human skin. It can combine with the skin cell to revitalize the skin. It is the most advanced unique nutritive material for skin care products in the current international market.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C or L-ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient for humans, in which it functions as a vitamin. Ascorbate (an ion of ascorbic acid) is required for a range of essential metabolic reactions in all animals and plants. Vitamin C is called the super oxidant for its ability to oxidize and neutralize free radicals. Vitamin C helps the body repair and maintains connective tissue by stimulating collagen production. Studies have shown that prolonged exposure of human connective tissue culture to Vitamin C results in an eight-fold increase in the synthesis of collagen.

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant that stops the production of reactive oxygen species formed when fat undergoes oxidation. Topical vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol or mixed tocopherols) has been shown to have a wide variety of skin benefits. Many studies have shown that vitamin E can help decrease the effects of psoriasis, erythema, and may help in reducing the risk of skin cancer. Vitamin E has also been shown to significantly help in the reduction of scaring from wounds and has been shown to help reduce the appearance of stretch marks on the skin. Vitamin E benefits your skin by: protecting your skin from the effects of aging, preventing the damaging effects of free radicals found in pollution and ultraviolet light, preventing skin cancer, reducing the appearance of stretch marks, reducing the appearance of age spots, and helping to maintain the skin’s natural oil balance.

Witch Hazel Extract

These therapeutic properties have been applied to cosmetic and natural skin care preparations for many years and Witch Hazel is commonly found in toning lotions, creams and facial masks. Cosmetically it is effective where there is puffy skin, for puffiness around the eyes and to generally improve skin tone.

Witch hazel is an astringent produced from the leaves and bark of the North American Witch Hazel shrub (Hamamelis virginiana). The name “Hamamelis” is from the Greek words for “apple” and “together”, since the flowers and fruit are produced at the same time. Witch hazel hydrosol is used in skin care. It is a strong anti-oxidant and astringent, which makes it very useful in fighting acne. It is often used as a natural remedy for psoriasis, eczema, aftershave applications, ingrown nails, to prevent sweating of the face, cracked or blistered skin, for treating insect bites, poison ivy, and as a treatment for varicose veins and hemorrhoids. Witch hazel is also traditionally known as a good first reaction against shaving cuts and abrasions for men and women, and it is also recommended by The Doctors Book of Home Remedies as effective for helping soothe sunburn.

Yolk Lecithin

Egg lecithin is derived from chicken egg yolk using biotechnology concentrated extraction. The lipids in yolk oil mostly consist of essential unsaturated fatty acids (EFA, Vitamin E). Our body cannot synthesis EFA on its own. Therefore, dietary intake is necessary. EFA insufficiency causes abnormal growth, poor reproductive system, scaling skin, hair loss, hematolysis and prostaglandin reduction.

The lecithin in egg yolk is completely absorbed by the skin and used as "skin food." Yolk gives the skin a fine, rosy appearance and maintains the elasticity of its upper layers.

E'shee Clinical Esthetic, Glossary